Postmodern literature has many different themes. Irony and the general concept of "play" are among the most recognizable aspects of postmodernism. Intertextuality is the relationship between something like a novel and another or one text within the fabric of literary history. In postmodern literature this is commonly seen as a reference to fairy tales. Pastiche is related to intertextuality, the word pashiche means to put together multiple elements. It can be seen as chaotic, pluralistic, or informationdrenched. Other themes are minimalism, maximalism, paranoia, magic realism and metafiction.